A soil-borne pest affecting roots of cereal crops, cereal cyst nematode (CCN) can cause substantial yield losses, particularly in continuous cereal crops. Cereal Cyst Nematode (CCN) is a soil nematode causing yellowing or paling of young cereal crops and significant yield losses in some situations. On heavy fertile soils crops tend to lighter green in affected areas whereas on sandy soils the crops tend to be yellow. At early tillering affected plants are pale, slightly stunted with erect and duller leaves and reduced tillering. It often occurs in irregular shaped patches from 1 metre to 100 m in diameter. The roots tend to be tangled into a ball with the roots shortened and thickened and knotted with 1 to many, round, circular, tiny, initially white cysts at some of the knots.