Bacterial Spot, caused by Xanthomonas, is one of the most devastating diseases of pepper and tomato grown in warm, moist environments. Once present in the crop, it is almost impossible to control the disease and prevent major fruit loss when environmental conditions remain favorable. Bacteria attack the foliage, stems, and fruit of peppers and tomatoes. On peppers, lesions may form on fruit, including the peduncle, but the major crop loss results from shedding of blossoms and young, developing fruit. Fruit that remain are usually non-marketable because of poor quality. They may have lesions and are often misshapen and damaged from excessive exposure to the sun as a result of defoliation. This can result in sunscald on the fruit. Diseased leaves drop prematurely resulting in extensive defoliation. As newly emerging leaves become infected and defoliation of older, diseased leaves continues, plants possess leaves mostly on their upper stems. Generally, defoliation is more common for peppers than for tomatoes. Because the diseased foliage often remains on tomato plants, affected plants may have a scorched appearance.