Scab refers to any of several bacterial or fungal diseases of plants characterized by crustaceous lesions on fruit, tuber, leaf, or stem. The term is also used for the symptom of the disease. Scab often affects the trees or plants of apples, crab apples, cereals, cucumbers, peaches, pecans, Photinis, potatoes, and pyracantha. Leaves of affected plants may wither and drop early. Potatoes are especially susceptible to common scab, caused by a bacteria that spreads rapidly in dry alkaline soils. It can be prevented by avoiding the use of materials such as wood ash, fresh manure, and lime that will add alkalinity to the soil. Other disease-prevention methods include planting resistant varieties or disease-free seeds, tubers, and corms; destroying diseased parts; removing weeds; rotating vegetables and flowers; and regularly spraying plants with fungicides.